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Table 3 Summary of the germlime mutagenicity estimated by NGS and TGR mutation assay

From: Estimation of the frequency of inherited germline mutations by whole exome sequencing in ethyl nitrosourea-treated and untreated gpt delta mice


NGS study

TGR mutation assay


(Confirmed by Sanger seq.)


Background MF

11 ± 14 × 10−8/basea

2.1 ± 1.7 × 10−6/reporter geneb

ENU-induced MF

184 ± 48 × 10−8/basea

44.4 ± 25.9 × 10−6/reporter geneb

(Fold increase)



Target sequence

Whole exome

Neutral transgene


(49.6 Mb)

(gpt: 456 bps)

Method of detection

Direct sequencing

Bacteria-mediated phenotypic selection

Source of DNA

Liver of offspring

Sperm of treated father


(Inherited mutation)

(Germ cell mutation)

  1. aIndependent mutation frequency. Unit = 1. (Each unit contains father, mother and 4 F1s.)
  2. b gpt mutant frequency. N = 5