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Table 3 Summary of the germlime mutagenicity estimated by NGS and TGR mutation assay

From: Estimation of the frequency of inherited germline mutations by whole exome sequencing in ethyl nitrosourea-treated and untreated gpt delta mice

  NGS study TGR mutation assay
  (Confirmed by Sanger seq.)  
Background MF 11 ± 14 × 10−8/basea 2.1 ± 1.7 × 10−6/reporter geneb
ENU-induced MF 184 ± 48 × 10−8/basea 44.4 ± 25.9 × 10−6/reporter geneb
(Fold increase) (17-fold) (21-fold)
Target sequence Whole exome Neutral transgene
  (49.6 Mb) (gpt: 456 bps)
Method of detection Direct sequencing Bacteria-mediated phenotypic selection
Source of DNA Liver of offspring Sperm of treated father
  (Inherited mutation) (Germ cell mutation)
  1. aIndependent mutation frequency. Unit = 1. (Each unit contains father, mother and 4 F1s.)
  2. b gpt mutant frequency. N = 5