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Table 1 Human cancer caused by infectious agents worldwide and possible markers

From: Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage in infection-related carcinogenesis in relation to cancer stem cells

Infectious agents Cancer site Number of cancer cases Cancer cases world wide (%) Detection of 8-nitroguanine [Refs.] Possible markers for CSC [20]
Bacteria
H. pylori Stomach 490,000 5.4 Patients [31, 76] SALL4, KLF5, LgR5
Viruses
 HPV Cervix and other sites 550,000 6.1 Patients [52] CK17
CD44 (HPV16)
Oct3/4 (HPV16)
 HBV, HCV Liver 390,000 4.3 Patients with HCV [39]
Mice with HBV [Fig. 5B, unpublished data]
CK19
Nanog, CD133
 EBV Lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
99,000 1.1 Patients [57] LMP2A
LMP1, Bmi-1
 HHV-8 Kaposi sarcoma 54,000 0.6   
 HTLV-1 Leukemia 9,000 0.1   
Parasites
 SH Bladder 2,700 0.1 Patients [21, 22] Oct3/4 (patients with SH) [21]
CD44v6 (patients without SH) [22]
 Liver flukes Cholangiocarcinoma 800    
 OV     Hamsters [6870, 75]
Patients [71, 74]
CD133, Oct3/4 [74]
CS
  Total infection- related cancers 1,600,000 17.7   
  Total cancers in 1995 9,000,000 100   
  1. Abbreviations: CSC cancer stem cell, Refs. references