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Table 1 Summary of experimental data of transgenic rat models for mutagenesis

From: Transgenic rat models for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

Agents Animal Dose Route Sex Age (weeks) Administration time/Sampling time (days) Tissue Transgenic assays Positive response Reference
Acetaminophen gpt delta rat (SD) 10000 ppm Diet Female 11 91/91 Liver gpt - [167]
Acrylamide Big Blue rat (F344) 1.4 mM Drinking water Male 7 60/60 Liver cII - [168]
Bone marrow cII - Ibid
Thyroid cII - Ibid
Testis cII   Ibid
gpt delta rat (F344) 0.7 mM Drinking water Female 7 60/60 Liver cII - Ibid
Bone marrow cII + Ibid
Thyroid cII + ibid
Mammary gland cII - Ibid
Male 7 60/60 Liver cII - Ibid
Female 7 60/60 Liver cII - Ibid
80 ppm Drinking water Male 3 28/28 Testis gpt + [169]
Liver gpt - Ibid
40 ppm Testis gpt - Ibid
Liver gpt - Ibid
20 ppm Testis gpt - Ibid
Liver gpt - Ibid
80 ppm Drinking water Male 11 28/28 Testis gpt - Ibid
Liver gpt - Ibid
40 ppm Testis gpt - Ibid
20 ppm Liver gpt - Ibid
Testis gpt - Ibid
Liver gpt - ibid
Aflatoxin B1 Big Blue rat (F344) 0.5 mg/kg Gavage Male 13 1/14 Liver lacI + [105]
Female 13 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
0.5 mg/kg Gavage Female 6–8 1/14 Liver lacI + [170]
cII + [109]
0.25 mg/kg Intraperitoneal Male 13–19 1/14 Liver lacI + [18]
2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) Big Blue rat (F344) 20 mg.kg Gavage Male 5 1/14 Liver lacI + [171]
Colon lacI + Ibid
Kidney lacI + Ibid
20 mg/kg x5 Gavage Male 5 5/18 Liver lacI + Ibid
Colon lacI + Ibid
Kidney lacI + Ibid
200 ppm Diet Male 8 21/21 Liver cII + [172]
Colon cII + Ibid
70 ppm Diet Male 8 21/21 Liver cII + Ibid
Colon cII + Ibid
9–12 21/21 Liver cII + [100]
Colon cII + Ibid
20 ppm Diet Male 8 21/21 Liver cII - [172]
Colon cII - Ibid
gpt delta rat (SD) 300 ppm Diet Female 11 91/91 Liver gpt + [167]
2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) Big Blue rat (F344) 100 ppm Diet Male 6 112/112 Liver lacI + [85]
Colon lacI + Ibid
Zymbal gland lacI + Ibid
Kidney lacI - Ibid
Spleen lacI - Ibid
Lung lacI - Ibid
Testis lacI - Ibid
Heart lacI - Ibid
Brain lacI - Ibid
Fat tissue lacI - Ibid
Skeletal muscle lacI - Ibid
10 ppm Diet Male 6 112/112 Liver lacI + Ibid
1 ppm Diet Male 6 112/112 Liver lacI - Ibid
0.1 ppm Diet Male 6 112/112 Liver lacI - Ibid
0.01 ppm Diet Male 6 112/112 Liver lacI - Ibid
0.001 ppm Diet Male 6 112/112 Liver lacI - Ibid
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) Big Blue rat (F344) 100 mg/kg, bw Intraperitoneal Male 8+22 1/14 Colon lacI + [102]
Female 8+22 1/14 Colon lacI + Ibid
75 mg/kg ×10 Oral Female 7 12/54 Mammary gland lacI + [40]
22 12/54 Mammary gland lacI + Ibid
70 mg/kg ×12 Gavage Male 13–15 28/30 Liver cII - [41]
Kidney cII - Ibid
Prostate cII + Ibid
Seminal vesicle cII + Ibid
Colon cII + Ibid
Spleen cII + Ibid
70 mg/kg ×24 Gavage Male 13–15 56/60 Liver cII - Ibid
Kidney cII - Ibid
Prostate cII + Ibid
Seminal vesicle cII + Ibid
Colon cII + Ibid
Spleen cII + Ibid
400 ppm Diet Male 6 60/67 Colon mucosa lacI + [23, 44]
cII + [23]
Female 6 60/67 Colon mucosa lacI + [23, 44]
cII + [23]
200 ppm Diet Male 7 61/68 Distal colon lacI + [45, 173]
Proximal colon lacI + Ibid
Cecum lacI + Ibid
Prostate lacI + [42]
Female 7 61/68 Distal colon lacI + [45]
Proximal colon lacI + Ibid
Cecum lacI + Ibid
100 ppm Diet Male and Female 7 47/54 Distal colon lacI + [174]
Cecum lacI + Ibid
Male 7 47/54 Kidney lacI + [98]
Female 7 47/54 Kidney lacI + Ibid
Big Blue rat (F344 × SD)F1 65 mg/kg ×10 Gavage Female 6 12/350–441 Mammary gland lacI + [39]
Amosite asbestos Big Blue rat (F344) 2 mg/rat Intratracheal Male 11 1/28 Lung lacI - [103, 126]
1/112 Lung lacI + Ibid
2 mg/rat ×4 Intratracheal Male 11 28/56 Lung lacI - Ibid
28/133 Lung lacI + Ibid
1 mg/rat Intratracheal Male 11 1/28 Lung lacI - Ibid
1/112 Lung lacI - Ibid
Aristolochic acid Big Blue rat (F344) 10 mg/kg Gavage Male 6 84/84 Kidney cII + [112, 113]
Liver cII + [112]
Testis cII - [175]
1.0 mg/kg Gavage Male 6 84/84 Kidney cII + [112, 113]
Liver cII + [112]
0.1 mg/kg Gavage Male 6 84/84 Kidney cII + [112, 113]
Liver cII - [112]
Big Blue rat (F344) 10 mg/kg Gavage Male 6 84/84 Spleen cII + [176]
1.0 mg/kg Gavage 6 84/84 Spleen cII + Ibid
0.1 mg/kg Gavage 6 84/84 Spleen cII - Ibid
gpt delta rat (F344) 1 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 28/31 Kidney gpt + [177]
0.3 mg/kg Gavage 7 28/31 Liver gpt + Ibid
Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) Big Blue rat (F344) 100 mg/kg, bw Intraperitoneal Male 8+22 1/14 Liver lacI + [102]
Female 8+22 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
5 mg/rat Intraperitoneal Female 10 1/28 Omentum lacI + [178]
1/84 Omentum lacI + Ibid
1/168 Omentum lacI + Ibid
gpt delta rat (SD) 125 mg/kg Intraperitoneal Male 9–10 1/7 Liver gpt + [17]
Spi + Ibid
62.5 mg/kg Intraperitoneal Male 9–10 1/7 Liver gpt + Ibid
Spi - Ibid
Bitumen fumes Big Blue rat (F344) 6 hr ×5 Inhalation Male 8 5/35 Lung cII - [132]
  Ibid
N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine Big Blue rat (F344) 0.05 % Drinking water Male 8 14/42 urothelial cells (urinary bladder) cII + [179]
smooth muscle cells (urinary bladder) cII - Ibid
Ureter cII - Ibid
Kidney cII - Ibid
Liver cII - Ibid
42/70 urothelial cells (urinary bladder) cII + Ibid
smooth muscle cells (urinary bladder) cII + Ibid
Ureter cII - Ibid
Kidney cII - Ibid
Liver cII - Ibid
Citrinin gpt delta rat (F344) 40 mg/kg (decreased to 30 mg/kg at day 4) Gavage Male   28/31 Kidney gpt - [65]
20 mg/kg 28/31 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Comfrey Big Blue rat (F344) 2 % Diet Male 6 84/84 Liver cII + [180]
Conjugated linoleic acid Big Blue rat (F344) 1 %(w/w) Diet Male and Female 7 54/61 Distal colon lacI - [174]
Cecum lacI - Ibid
Kidney lacI - [98]
Crocidolite Big Blue rat (F344) 5 mg/rat Intraperitoneal Female 10 1/28 Omentum lacI - [178]
1/84 Omentum lacI + Ibid
1/168 Omentum lacI + Ibid
2 mg/rat Intraperitoneal Female 10 1/28 Omentum lacI - Ibid
1/84 Omentum lacI - Ibid
1/168 Omentum lacI - Ibid
Cyproterone acetate Big Blue rat (F344) 160 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/14 Liver lacI + [90]
100 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/1 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/2 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/3 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/7 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/28 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/42 Liver lacI + Ibid
1/56 Liver lacI + Ibid
80 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
40 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
20 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
10 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
5 mg/kg Gavage Female 12 1/14 Liver lacI - Ibid
5 mg/kg ×21 Gavage Female 11–12 21/22 Liver lacI + [181]
1.0 mg/kg ×21 Gavage Female 11–12 21/22 Liver lacI - Ibid
0.2 mg/kg ×21 Gavage Female 11–12 21/22 Liver lacI - Ibid
Daidzein Big Blue rat (F344) 1 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Mammary gland lacI - [95]
Uterus lacI - [96]
0.25 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Mammary gland lacI - [95]
Uterus lacI - [96]
Big Blue rat (F344), ovariectomized 1 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Uterus lacI - [96]
0.25 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Uterus lacI - Ibid
Diallyl sulfide (DAS) Big Blue rat (F344) 200 mg/kg ×2 Gavage Male 7–10 7/21 Esophagus lacI - [93]
2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) gpt delta rat (F344) 30 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 28/31 Liver gpt + [55]
10 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 28/31 Liver gpt + Ibid
gpt delta rat (F344) 500 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi + [7]
500 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
250 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi + Ibid
250 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
125 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Liver gpt + Ibid
125 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Liver Spi- - Ibid
125 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
2,6-diaminotoluene (2.6-DAT) gpt delta rat (F344) 60 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 28/31 Liver gpt - [55]
gpt delta rat (F344) 500 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi - [7]
500 ppm Diet Male 7 91/91 kideny gpt - Ibid
1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane Big Blue rat (F344) 3.8 ppm, 6 hr ×5×2 Inhalation Female and Male 6–8 14/49 Spleen lacI - [182]
14/28 Bone marrow lacI + Ibid
Diesel exhaust (DE) Big Blue rat (F344) 6 mg SPM/m3, 12 hr/day Inhalation Male 6 28/31 Lung lacI + [130]
1 mg SPM/m3, 12 hr/day Inhalation Male 6 28/31 Lung lacI - ibid
80 mg DEP/kg Diet Male 8 21/21 Lung cII - [131]
20 mg DEP/kg Diet Male 8 21/21 Lung cII - Ibid
8 mg DEP/kg Diet Male 8 21/21 Lung cII - Ibid
2 mg DEP/kg Diet Male 8 21/21 Lung cII - Ibid
0.8 mg DEP/kg Diet Male 8 21/21 Lung cII - Ibid
0.2 mg DEP/kg Diet Male 8 21/21 Lung cII - Ibid
Di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) gpt delta rat (SD) 12000 ppm Diet Female 11 91/91 Liver gpt - [167]
Spi - Ibid
Diethylnitrosamine gpt delta rat (F344) 20 mg/kg (once a week) Intraperitoneal Male 7 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi + [7]
Male 7 91/91 kidney gpt + ibid
5-p-Dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (5BT) Big Blue rat (F344) 10 mg/kg ×10 Gavage Male 12 10/20 Liver lacI + [61]
0.03 % Diet Male 12 10/20 Liver lacI + ibid
6-p-Dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (6BT) Big Blue rat (F344) 10 mg/kg ×10 Gavage Male 12 10/20 Liver lacI + [61, 183]
0.03 % Diet Male 12 10/20 Liver lacI + ibid
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) Big Blue rat (F344) 130 mg/kg Gavage Female 7 1/14 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + [27]
1/14 Mammary gland lacI + [184]
1/14 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/42 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + [27]
1/42 Mammary gland lacI + [184]
1/42 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/70 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + [27]
1/70 Mammary gland lacI + [18]
1/70 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/98 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + [27]
1/98 Mammary gland lacI + [184]
1/98 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
80 mg/kg Gavage Female 7 1/112 Liver cII + [94]
  Uterus lacI + [96]
75 mg/kg Gavage Female 7 1/14 Splenic lymphocyte lacI - [27]
1/42 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + Ibid
1/70 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + Ibid
1/98 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + Ibid
1/126 Splenic lymphocyte lacI - Ibid
20 mg/kg Gavage Female 7 1/14 Splenic lymphocyte lacI - [27]
1/14 Mammary gland lacI - [184]
1/14 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/42 Splenic lymphocyte lacI + [27]
1/42 Mammary gland lacI - [184]
1/42 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/70 Splenic lymphocyte lacI - [27]
1/70 Mammary gland lacI - [184]
1/70 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/98 Splenic lymphocyte lacI - [27]
1/98 Mammary gland lacI - [18])
1/98 Bone marrow lacI + [26]
1/126 Splenic lymphocyte lacI - [27]
1/126 Mammary gland lacI - [184]
Big Blue rat (F344), ovariectomized 80 mg/kg Gavage Female 7 1/112 Heart lacI + [185]
Liver cII + [94]
Uterus lacI + [96]
Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) Big Blue rat (F344) 6.0 mg/kg ×9 Gavage Male 12 11/12 Liver lacI + [20]
cII + Ibid
2.0 mg/kg ×9 Gavage Male 12 11/12 Liver lacI + Ibid
cII + Ibid
0.6 mg/kg ×9 Gavage Male 12 11/12 Liver lacI - Ibid
cII - Ibid
0.2 mg/kg ×9 Gavage Male 12 11/12 Liver lacI - Ibid
cII - Ibid
Big Blue rat (F344) 25 ppm Drinking water    14/14 Liver cII   [186]
10 ppm Drinking water    14/14 Liver cII   Ibid
5 ppm Drinking water    14/14 Liver cII   Ibid
1 ppm Drinking water    14/14 Liver cII   Ibid
0.1 ppm Drinking water    14/14 Liver cII   Ibid
Ellagic acid Big Blue rat (F344) 4 g/kg Diet Male 7–10 42/42 Esophagus lacI - [93]
1,2-Epoxy-3-butene Big Blue rat (F344) 29.9 ppm, 6 hr ×5×2 Inhalation Female 6–8 14/49 Spleen lacI - [182]
14/28 Bone marrow lacI + Ibid
Estragole gpt delta rat (F344) 600 mg/kg Gavage Male 5 5 days per week x 4 weeks Liver gpt (72) toxic but 2 of 5 survived rats showed positive responses
200 mg/kg Gavage Male 5 5 days per week x 4 weeks Liver gpt + ibid
66 mg/kg Gavage Male 5 5 days per week x 4 weeks Liver gpt - Ibid
22 mg/kg Gavage Male 5 5 days per week x 4 weeks Liver gpt - Ibid
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) Big Blue rat (F344) 100 mg/kg Intraperitoneal Male 8+22 1/14 Liver lacI + [102]
Female 8+22 1/14 Liver lacI + Ibid
gpt delta rat (SD) 100 mg/kg Intraperitoneal Male 5 1/7 Liver gpt + [17]
Spi - Ibid
50 mg/kg ×5 Intraperitoneal Male 10 5/7 Liver gpt + Ibid
5/21 Liver gpt + Ibid
5/35 Liver gpt + Ibid
     5/70 Liver gpt + Ibid
17beta-estradiol Big Blue rat (F344) 0.005 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Mammary gland lacI - [95]
Uterus lacI - [96]
Big Blue rat (F344), ovariectomized 0.005 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Heart lacI - [95]
Uterus lacI - [96]
Ethanol Big Blue rat (F344) 5 % Drinking water Male 7–10 21/21 Esophagus lacI - [93]
Fructose Big Blue rat (F344) 30 % Diet Male 9–12 35/35 Liver cII - [101]
Colon cII +− Ibid
Furan Big Blue rat (F344) 30 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 56/56 Liver cII - [187]
16 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 56/56 Liver cII - Ibid
8 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 56/56 Liver cII - Ibid
2 mg/kg Gavage Male 7 56/56 Liver cII - Ibid
Genistein Big Blue rat (F344) 1 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Mammary gland lacI - [95]
7 112/112 Liver cII - [94]
Uterus lacI - [96]
0.25 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Mammary gland lacI - [95]
Uterus lacI - [96]
Big Blue rat (F344), ovariectomized 1 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Heart lacI - [185]
Uterus lacI - [96]
Liver cII - [94]
0.25 g/kg Diet Female 7 112/112 Heart lacI - [185]
Uterus lacI - [96]
Glass wool fibres Big Blue rat (F344) 2 mg/rat Intratracheal Male 11 1/28 Lung lacI - [127, 188]
1/112 Lung lacI - Ibid
2 mg/rat x4 Intratracheal Male 11 28/56 Lung lacI - Ibid
28/133 Lung lacI - Ibid
1 mg/rat Intratracheal Male 11 1/28 Lung lacI - Ibid
1/112 Lung lacI - Ibid
Glucose Big Blue rat (F344) 30 % Diet Male 9–12 35/35 Liver cII - [101]
Colon cII +− Ibid
Glycidamide Big Blue rat (F344) 1.4 mM Drinking water Male 7 60/60 Liver cII - [168]
Bone marrow cII + Ibid
Thyroid cII + Ibid
Testis cII - Ibid
Female 7 60/60 Liver cII - Ibid
Bone marrow cII + Ibid
Thyroid cII + Ibid
Mammary gland cII - Ibid
0.7 mM Drinking water Male 7 60/60 Liver cII - Ibid
Female 7 60/60 Liver cII - Ibid
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] (as sodium dichromate dihydrate) Big Blue rat (F344) 180 ppm (as Cr(VI)) Drinking water Male 10 28/31 Oral cavity (gingival/bubbal) cII - [189]
Oral cavity (gingival/palate) cII - Ibid
N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene Big Blue rat (F344) 25 mg/kg ×1 Intraperitoneal Male 6 1/42 Liver lacI + [28, 190]
25 mg/kg ×2 Intraperitoneal Male 6 5/42 Liver lacI + Ibid
25 mg/kg ×4 Intraperitoneal Male 6 13/42 Liver lacI + Ibid
Spleen lymphocytes lacI + Ibid
4-Hydroxy-PCB3 (4-OH-PCB3) Big Blue rat (F344) 82 mg/kg ×4 Intraperitoneal Male 6 22/38 Liver lacI +− [133]
Lung lacI +− [135]
alpha-Hydroxytamoxifen Big Blue rat (F344) 54 μmol/kg ×21 Intraperitoneal Female 8 21/51 Liver cII + [22]
Liver lacI + [191]
Uterus lacI - Ibid
0.103 mmol/kg ×10 Gavage Female 6–8 10/56 Liver lacI + [192]
Lard Big Blue rat (F344) 30 % Diet Male 8 21/21 Liver cII - [193]
Colon cII - Ibid
10 % Diet Male 8 21/21 Liver cII - Ibid
Colon cII - Ibid
3 % Diet Male 8 21/21 Liver cII - Ibid
Colon cII - Ibid
Leucomalachite green Big Blue rat (F344) 543 ppm Diet Female 6 28/28 Liver lacI - [79]
112/112 Liver lacI - [79, 81]
  224/224 Liver lacI - [79]
272 ppm Diet Female 6 28/28 Liver lacI - Ibid
112/112 Liver lacI - Ibid
224/224 Liver lacI - Ibid
91 ppm Diet Female 6 112/112 Liver lacI - Ibid
N-Methyl-amyl-nitrosamine Big Blue rat (Sprague Dawley/Big Blue F1) 25 mg/kg ×10 Intraperitoneal   10 64/70 Esophagus lacI + [194]
3-Methylcholanthrene Big Blue rat (F344) 80 mg/kg ×4 Intraperitoneal Male 6 22/38 Liver lacI + [133]
Lung lacI + [135]
4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) Big Blue rat (F344) 113 mg/kg ×4 Intraperitoneal Male 6 22/38 Liver lacI + [133]
Lung lacI + [135]
Madder color and lucidin-3-O-primeveroside (LuP) gpt delta rat (F344) Madder color 5.0 % w/w Diet Male 5 56/56 Kidney gpt, Spi + [73]
LuP 0.3 % w/w Diet Male 5 56/56 Kidney gpt, Spi + Ibid
3-MCPD gpt delta rat (F344) 40 mg/kg Gavege Male 6 5 times per week x 4 weeks/1 Kidney and testis gpt, Spi - [66]
the equimolar esters Gavege Male 6 Kidney and testis gpt, Spi - Ibid
Methyleugenol gpt delta rat (F344) 100 mg/kg Gavage Male and female 5 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi + [74]
30 mg/kg Gavage Male and female 5 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi - Ibid
10 mg/kg Gavage Male and female 5 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi - Ibid
Nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) Big Blue rat (F344) 6 mg/kg (130 mg/m3), 2 h Inhalation Male 9 1/14 Lung lacI - [123]
Nasal mucosa lacI - Ibid
gpt delta rat (F344) 1 mg/animal Intratracheally instillation Male 12 28/28 Lung gpt, Spi - [124]
0.5 mg/animal Intratracheally instillation Male 12 28/28 Lung gpt, Spi - Ibid
1 mg/animal Intratracheally instillation Male 12 90/90 Lung gpt, Spi - ibid
0.5 mg/animal Intratracheally instillation Male 12 90/90 Lung gpt, Spi - Ibid
N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine Big Blue rat (F344) 2 mg/kg ×2 Subcutaneous Male 7–10 7/21 Esophagus lacI + [93]
6-Nitrochrysene Big Blue rat (F344 × SD)F1 100 μmole/rat x 8 Oral Female 5 50/274 Mammary gland cII + [195]
50 μmole/rat x 8 Oral Female 5 50/274 Mammary gland cII + Ibid
N-nitrosopyrrolidine gpt delta rat (SD) 200 ppm Drinking water Female 11 91/91 Liver gpt + [167]
4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide Big Blue rat (F344) 10 ppm Drinking water Male 10–11 28/31 Oral cavity (gingival/bubbal) cII + [196]
Oral cavity (gingival/palate) cII + Ibid
Liver cII - Ibid
Bone marrow cII - Ibid
Big Blue rat (F344) 10 ppm Drinking water Male 10 28/31 Oral cavity (gingival/bubbal) cII + [189]
Oral cavity (gingival/palate) cII + Ibid
Ochratoxin A gpt delta rat (F344) 5 ppm Diet Male and female 5 28/28 outer medulla of kidney gpt - [50]
Male and female 5 28/28 outer medulla of kidney Spi + Ibid
Male and female 5 91/91 whole kidney gpt, Spi - ibid
5 ppm Diet Male 5 28/28 outer medulla of kidney Spi + [65]
Phenacetin gpt delta rat (SD) 0.50 % Diet Male and female 7 182/182 Kidney gpt, Spi - [52]
Male and female 7 182/182 Liver gpt + Ibid
Male and female 7 182/182 Liver Spi - ibid
Male 7 364/364 Kidney gpt + Ibid
Male 7 364/364 Kideney Spi - Ibid
Female 7 364/364 Kideney gpt, Spi - Ibid
Male 7 364/364 Liver gpt, Spi + Ibid
Female 7 364/364 Liver gpt, Spi + Ibid
Potassium Bromate (KBrO3) Big Blue rat (F344) 500 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI + [87]
125 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
30 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
8 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
2 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
0.2 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
0.02 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
0.002 ppm Drinking water Male 6 112/112 Kidney lacI - Ibid
gpt delta rat (SD) 500 ppm Drinking water Male 5 7/7 Kidney gpt - [119]
Spi - Ibid
35/35 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Spi - Ibid
63/63 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Spi + Ibid
91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Spi + Ibid
250 ppm Drinking water Male 5 91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Spi - Ibid
125 ppm Drinking water Male 5 91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Spi - Ibid
60 ppm Drinking water Male 5 91/91 Kidney gpt - Ibid
Spi - Ibid
gpt delta rat (F344) 500 ppm Drinking water Male 5 63/63 Kidney gpt - [120]
Spi - Ibid
Female 5 63/63 Kidney gpt + Ibid
Spi - Ibid
Riddelliine Big Blue rat (F344) 1.0 mg/kg ×5 ×12 Gavage Female 6 82/83 Liver cII + [115]
0.3 mg/kg ×5 ×12 Gavage Female 6 82/83 Liver cII + ibid
6 82/83 Liver parenchymal cells cII - [116]
6 82/83 Liver endothelial cells cII + Ibid
0.1 mg/kg ×5 ×12 Gavage Female 6 82/83 Liver cII + [115]
Rock wool fibers Big Blue rat (F344) 2 mg/rat Intratracheal Male 11 1/28 Lung lacI - [127, 188]
1/112 Lung lacI + Ibid
2 mg/rat ×4 Intratracheal Male 11 28/56 Lung lacI - Ibid
28/133 Lung lacI + ibid
1 mg/rat Intratracheal Male 11 1/28 Lung lacI - Ibid
1/112 Lung lacI + Ibid
Selenium (as sodium selenite) with dimethylhydrazine (DMH) injection Big Blue rat (F344) 2 μg Se/g diet with DMH injection Diet    63–84/63–84 (DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, i.p., weekly, twice) was injected after 3 weeks of the diet. Liver cII + [197]
Colon cII + Ibid
0.2 μg Se/g diet with DMH injection Diet    63–84/63–84 (DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, i.p., weekly, twice) was injected after 3 weeks of the diet. Liver cII + Ibid
Colon cII + Ibid
*No effect of Se.
Sucrose Big Blue rat (F344) 30 % Diet Male 9–12 35/35 Liver cII - [101]
Colon cII +− Ibid
34.50 % Diet Male 8–12 21/21 Liver cII - [136]
Colon cII + ibid
13.80 % Diet Male 8–12 21/21 Liver cII - Ibid
Colon cII + Ibid
6.90 % Diet Male 8–12 21/21 Liver cII - Ibid
Colon cII - Ibid
13.40 % Diet Male 9–12 21/21 Liver cII - [100]
Colon cII + Ibid
3.45 % Diet Male 9–12 21/21 Liver cII - Ibid
Colon cII + Ibid
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Big Blue rat (F344) 2 μig/kg ×12 Gavage Male 8 42/56 Liver lacI - [128]
Female 8 42/56 Liver lacI - Ibid
Tamoxifen Big Blue rat (F344) 54 μmol/kg ×21 Intraperitoneal Female 8 21/51 Liver cII + [22]
Liver lacI + [191]
Uterus lacI - Ibid
20 mg/kg ×42 Gavage Female 6–8, 16–18 42/56 Liver lacI + [170]
  cII + [109]
6–8 42/42 Liver lacI + [110]
42/56 Liver lacI + Ibid
42/126 Liver lacI + Ibid
42/210 Liver lacI + Ibid
10 mg/kg ×42 Gavage Female 6–8 42/56 Liver lacI + [170]
   cII +− [109]
gpt delta rat (F344) 40 mg/kg Gavege Female 21/21 Liver gpt, Spi + [58]
Gavege Female 21/21 Kidney gpt, Spi - Ibid
20 mg/kg Gavege Female 21/21 Liver gpt, Spi + Ibid
Gavege Female 21/21 Kidney gpt, Spi - Ibid
500 ppm Diet Female 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi + Ibid
Diet Female 91/91 Kidney gpt, Spi - Ibid
250 ppm Diet Female 91/91 Liver gpt, Spi + Ibid
Diet Female 91/91 Kidney gpt, Spi - Ibid
Thiotepa Toremifene Big Blue rat (F344) 1.4 mg/kg ×12 Intraperitoneal Male 7 28/35 Spleen lymphocytes lacI + [29]
Big Blue rat (F344) 20 mg/kg ×42 Gavage Female 6–8 42/56 Liver lacI - [170]
gpt delta rat (F344) 40 mg/kg Gavege Female 21/21 Liver gpt, Spi - [58]
Gavege Female 21/21 Kidney gpt, Spi - Ibid
Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (TDBP) Big Blue rat (F344) 2000 ppm Diet Male 6–8 45/45 Kidney (outer medulla) lacI + [47]
Kidney (inner medulla) lacI + Ibid
Kidney (cortex) lacI + Ibid
100 ppm Diet Male 6–8 45/45 Kidney (outer medulla) lacI + Ibid
Kidney (inner medulla) lacI + Ibid
Kidney (cortex) lacI + Ibid
Uracil Big Blue rat (F344) 3 % Diet Male 6 14/14 Bladder lacI - [25]
70/70 Bladder lacI + Ibid
140/140 Bladder lacI + Ibid
357/357 Bladder lacI + Ibid