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Table 3 Antimutagenic activity of coumarins (1 and 2), limonoids (19 and 20), oxime and synthetic intermediates (21, 21a, and 21b), ent-kaurane diterpenoids (25, 26, 29, 30, and 33), and onoceranoid-type triterpenoids (4749, 53, and 54) against PhIP (1.0 μg/plate) using the Ames test [4,5,6,7,8] a,b

From: Isolation and structure elucidation of constituents of Citrus limon, Isodon japonicus, and Lansium domesticum as the cancer prevention agents

  Inhibition % (Based on number of revertant colonies)
50 nmol/plate 100 nmol/plate 200 nmol/plate 400 nmol/plate 800 nmol/plate
Coumarins
1b 17.5% 29.1% 48.4% 48.6% 81.4%
2b 18.2% 35.4% 62.2% 77.6% 86.3%
Limonoids
19b 27.0% 39.0% 25.5% 50.3% 46.7%
20b 23.6% 44.2% 74.9% 79.8%  
Oxime
21b 12.2% 11.1% 29.7% 47.1% 63.7%
Synthetic intermediates of 21
21ab 8.6% 7.4% 0.7%
21bb 10.7% 18.0% 39.0% 53.3% 68.1%
ent-Kaurane diterpenoids
25b 55.8% 62.8% 73.7% 80.7%  
26b 54.3% 72.0% 79.5% 85.5%  
29b 24.0% 43.2% 62.3% 74.2%  
30b 51.0% 64.8% 81.4% 85.5%  
33b 71.0% 79.5% 80.4%   
Onoceranoid-type triterpenoids
47b 30.8% 72.7% 93.7% 94.9%  
48b 14.3% 33.7% 54.3% 74.4%  
49b 4.1% 17.2% 22.5% 41.0%  
53b 36.8% 65.2% 94.1% 93.9%  
54c 18.6% 32.4% 63.2% 95.4%  
  1. a Nobiletin was used as a reference compound. It showed 56% inhibition at 20 nmol/plate
  2. b Compounds showed no antibacterial activity [< 5.0% inhibition at highest concentration] against the S. typhimurium TA98 strain
  3. c Compound showed weak antibacterial activity [54: 23.0% inhibition at 400 nmol/plate] against the S. typhimurium TA98 strain