Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of large cohort studies about formaldehyde and leukemia

From: Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia risk: a comprehensive review and network-based toxicogenomic approach

Author Cohort descriptions Results (95% CI) Comments
Coggon et al. [40] 14,014 workers at factories
1941–2000
Leukemia: 31 deaths
SMR 0.91 (0.62–1.29)
Leukemia: 8 deaths
SMR 0.71 (0.31–1.39)
All subjects
High exposure ≥2.0 ppm group
Coggon et al. [43] Update of Coggon et al.
1941–2012
Leukemia: 54 deaths
SMR 1.02 (0.77–1.33)
Myeloid Leukemia: 36 deaths
SMR 1.20 (0.84–1.66)
Leukemia: 13 deaths
SMR 0.82 (0.44–1.41)
Myeloid Leukemia: 8 deaths
SMR 0.93 (0.40–1.82)
All subjects
High exposure ≥2.0 ppm group
Hauptmann et al. [41] 25,619 workers at factories
1966–1994
Leukemia: 29 deaths
RR 2.46 (1.31–4.62)
Myeloid Leukemia: 14 deaths
RR 3.46 (1.27–9.43)
Peak exposure ≥4.0 ppm group
Compared low peak exposure (0.1–1.9 ppm)
35 years of median length of follow-up
Beane Freeman et al. [44] Update of Hauptmann et al.
1966–2004
Leukemia: 48 deaths
RR 1.42 (0.92–2.18)
Myeloid Leukemia: 19 deaths
RR 1.78 (0.87–3.64)
Peak exposure ≥4.0 ppm group
42 years of median length of follow-up
Pinkerton et al. [34] 11,039 garment workers
1955–1998
Leukemia: 15 deaths
SMR 1.92 (1.08–3.17)
Myeloid Leukemia: 8 deaths
SMR 2.55 (1.10–5.03)
The mean TWA exposure 0.15 ppm
Multiple cause mortality from leukemia and myeloid leukemia
10+ years exposure and 20+ years since the first exposure
Meyers et al. [45] Update of Pinkerton et al.
1955–2008
Leukemia: 23 deaths
SMR 1.74 (1.10–2.60)
Myeloid Leukemia: 10 deaths
SMR 1.90 (0.91–3.50)
Multiple cause mortality from leukemia and myeloid leukemia
10+ years exposure and 20+ years since the first exposure
  1. CI Confidence interval, SMR Standardized mortality ratio, RR Relative risk, TWA Time-weighted average