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Table 4 Summary of epidemiological studies of associations between HAA intake and cancer risk among Japanese

From: Dietary heterocyclic aromatic amine intake and cancer risk: epidemiological evidence from Japanese studies

Reference Study period Outcome Design Study subjects Exposure Category Odds ratios 95% confidence intervals P for trend Confounding factors
Definition Age range Number of subjects
Kobayashi et al. [24] 1998–2002 Colorectal cancer Hospital-based case-control Cases: histopathologically confirmed, Controls: medical check-up examinees 21–76 years 117 cases and 238 controls PhIP Tertile 1 1   0.777 Matched (1:2) for sex, age and area of residence. Adjusted by conditional logistic regression for smoking status, alcohol intake, family history of colorectal cancer, body mass index, JA membership, and intake of vegetables, meat, fish, and dietary fiber.
  Tertile 2 1.69 (0.52–5.56)  
  Tertile 3 1.32 (0.27–6.48)  
MeIQx Tertile 1 1   0.397
  Tertile 2 1.67 (0.51–5.41)  
  Tertile 3 1.98 (0.42–9.32)  
MeIQ Tertile 1 1   0.793
  Tertile 2 1.09 (0.28–4.25)  
  Tertile 3 1.23 (0.23–6.64)  
Total HAAs Tertile 1 1   0.903
  Tertile 2 1.77 (0.55–5.72)  
  Tertile 3 0.99 (0.21–4.81)  
Kobayashi et al. [25] 1998–2002 Stomach cancer Hospital-based case-control Cases: histopathologically confirmed, Controls: medical check-up examinees 21–76 years 149 cases and 296 controls PhIP Tertile 1 1   0.556 Matched (1:2) for sex, age and area of residence. Adjusted by conditional logistic regression for H. pylori status, smoking status, alcohol intake, family history of stomach cancer, body mass index, total vegetable intake, meat intake, fish intake, salt intake, and JA membership.
  Tertile 2 1.75 (0.77–3.99)  
  Tertile 3 1.33 (0.44–4.02)  
MeIQx Tertile 1 1   0.248
  Tertile 2 1.06 (0.52–2.14)  
  Tertile 3 0.81 (0.36–1.82)  
MeIQ Tertile 1 1   0.922
  Tertile 2 1.23 (0.52–2.89)  
  Tertile 3 1.06 (0.36–3.12)  
Total HAAs Tertile 1 1   0.807
  Tertile 2 1.33 (0.59–2.98)  
  Tertile 3 1.11 (0.36–3.49)  
Budhathoki et al. [26] 2004–2005 Colorectal adenoma Cross-sectional Cases: diagnosed according to pit-pattern classification using magnifying colonoscopy with dye spreading, Controls: confirmed by total colonoscopy 50–79 years 498 cases and 453 controls among men PhIP Quartile 1 1   0.77 Adjusted for age, screening period, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, family history of colorectal cancer, and NSAID use. Further adjusted for age at menarche, menopausal status, and current use of hormones in females.
  Quartile 2 1.33 (0.91–1.93)  
  Quartile 3 1.09 (0.74–1.60)  
  Quartile 4 1.02 (0.69–1.50)  
MeIQx Quartile 1 1   0.97
  Quartile 2 1.33 (0.91–1.94)  
  Quartile 3 1.26 (0.86–1.85)  
  Quartile 4 1.01 (0.68–1.50)  
MeIQ Quartile 1 1   0.47
  Quartile 2 1.21 (0.84–1.76)  
  Quartile 3 0.95 (0.65–1.40)  
  Quartile 4 0.94 (0.64–1.37)  
Total HAAs Quartile 1 1   0.64
  Quartile 2 1.43 (0.98–2.08)  
  Quartile 3 1.05 (0.71–1.55)  
  Quartile 4 1.02 (0.69–1.50)  
240 cases and 244 controls among women PhIP Quartile 1 1   0.09
  Quartile 2 0.74 (0.42–1.32)  
  Quartile 3 1.08 (0.62–1.88)  
  Quartile 4 1.43 (0.83–2.45)  
MeIQx Quartile 1 1   0.10
  Quartile 2 1.02 (0.58–1.78)  
  Quartile 3 0.97 (0.56–1.70)  
  Quartile 4 1.58 (0.92–2.73)  
MeIQ Quartile 1 1   0.01
  Quartile 2 1.42 (0.80–2.53)  
  Quartile 3 1.73 (0.97–3.08)  
  Quartile 4 2.10 (1.20–3.67)  
Total HAAs Quartile 1 1   0.03
  Quartile 2 1.04 (0.58–1.86)  
  Quartile 3 1.44 (0.83–2.51)  
  Quartile 4 1.73 (0.99–3.01)  
Koda et al. [27] 2004–2006 Prostate cancer Hospital-based case-control Cases: histologically confirmed, Controls: medical check-up examinees 40–90 years 351 cases and 351 controls PhIP Tertile 1 1   < 0.001 Matched (1:1) for age. Adjusted by conditional logistic regression for alcohol intake, smoking status, body mass index, family history of prostate cancer, and total energy intake
  Tertile 2 1.06 (0.77–1.48)  
  Tertile 3 1.84 (1.35–2.50)  
MeIQx Tertile 1 1   < 0.001
  Tertile 2 1.05 (0.76–1.46)  
  Tertile 3 2.25 (1.65–3.06)  
MeIQ Tertile 1 1   < 0.001
  Tertile 2 1.18 (0.85–1.63)  
  Tertile 3 1.87 (1.38–2.55)  
Trp-P-1 Tertile 1 1   < 0.001
  Tertile 2 1.05 (0.76–1.45)  
  Tertile 3 1.92 (1.42–2.61)  
Total HAAs Tertile 1 1   < 0.001
  Tertile 2 1.14 (0.83–1.58)  
  Tertile 3 1.90 (1.40–2.59)  
  1. HAAs heterocyclic aromaticamines, MeIQx 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline, MeIQ 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline, Trp-P-1 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole, PhIP 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine