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Table 1 Liver MN assay results in the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS MMS and rat carcinogenicity data for the test chemicals

From: Detection of hepatocarcinogens by combination of liver micronucleus assay and histopathological examination in 2-week or 4-week repeated dose studies

Group Chemical Abbreviation CAS no. In vivo MN assay (Liver) Rat carcinogenicity
     2 weeks Ref. 4 weeks Ref. Liver Other sites Ref.
Group A Dimethylnitrosamine DMN 62–75-9 + [2] + [2] + kid, lun, vsc, tes [22]
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine NPYR 930–55-2 + [2] + [2] + kid, vsc, tes [22, 23]
4,4′-Methylenedianiline MDA 101–77-9 + [2] + [2] + thy [24]
N-Nitrosodipropylamine NDPA 621–64-7 + [2] ND   + eso, nas [22]
2,4-Dinitrotoluene 2,4-DNT 121–14-2 + [2] + [2] + ski, mgl [22]
2,6-Dinitrotoluene 2,6-DNT 606–20-2 + [2] + [2] + [22]
Quinoline QUN 91–22-5 + [2] + [2] + [25]
p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene DAB 60–11-7 + [2] + [2] + [22]
2-Nitropropane 2-NP 79–46-9 + [2] + [2] + [26]
Monocrotaline MCT 315–22-0 + [2] + [2] + [22]
N-Nitrosomorpholine NMOR 59–89-2 + [2] ND   + vsc [22]
2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-AAF 53–96-3 + [2] + [2] + ski, mgl [22]
Sudan I (C.I.solvent yellow 14) Sudan I 842–07-9 + [21] ND   + [22]
Thioacetamide TAA 62–55-5 + [21] + [21] + [22]
Group B Mitomycin C MMC 50–07-7 + [2] + [2] per [22]
Cyclophosphamide H2O CP 6055-19-2 [2] ND   ub, lym, ner [27]
Potassium bromate KBrO3 7758-01-2 [2] [2] kid, per, thy [22]
N-Methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine MNNG 70–25-7 [2] [2] eso, smi, sto [22]
Methyl methanesulfonate MMS 66–27-3 + [2] [2] hmo, lun, ner [22, 26]
Kojic acid KA 501–30-4 [2] [2] thy (mouse) [22]
  1. MN assay: micronucleus assay
  2. +: positive; −: negative; ND: no data;
  3. kid: kidney; lun: lung; vsc: vascular system; tes: testes; thy: thyroid gland; eso: esophagus; nas: nasal cavity; ski: skin; mgl: mammary gland; per: peritoneal cavity;
  4. ub: urinary bladder; lym: lymphocyte; ner: nervous system; smi: small intestine; sto: stomach; hmo: hematopoietic system; pan: pancreas
  5. Group A, Genotoxic hepatocarcinogens;
  6. Group B, Genotoxic carcinogens but non-liver-targeted