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Table 2 Odds ratios of total neural tube defects (NTDs) and two of their subtypes (anencephaly and spina bifida) associated with exposure index (EI) to coal combustion during cooking

From: Thorium and fetal neural tube defects: an epidemiological evidence from large case-control study

EI Anencephaly (N = 123)a P Spina bifida (N = 115) P Total NTDs (N = 263) P
  cOR b (95% CI)      
0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1 3.60 (2.11–6.15) < 0.001 3.95 (2.26–6.9) < 0.001 3.84 (2.53–5.83) < 0.001
2 3.01 (1.89–4.81) < 0.001 3.46 (2.13–5.62) < 0.001 3.18 (2.23–4.55) < 0.001
  Ptrend < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001
  aOR1 c (95% CI)      
0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1 1.76 (0.87–3.56) 0.113 2.43 (1.23–4.78) < 0.05 2.33 (1.40–3.89) < 0.01
2 1.37 (0.75–2.51) 0.303 2.20 (1.23–3.94) < 0.01 1.73 (1.11–2.69) < 0.05
  Ptrend 0.270   < 0.01   < 0.01
  aOR2 d (95% CI)      
0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1 1.61 (0.78–3.32) 0.199 2.60 (1.14–5.94) < 0.05 1.95 (1.12–3.39) < 0.05
2 1.74 (0.83–3.65) 0.143 4.45 (1.98–9.99) < 0.001 3.10 (1.80–5.36) < 0.001
  Ptrend < 0.05   < 0.001   < 0.001
  aOR3 e (95% CI)      
0 1.00   1.00   1.00  
1 1.74 (0.89–3.41) 0.106 2.27 (1.18–4.39) < 0.05 2.23 (1.37–3.63) < 0.01
2 1.45 (0.8–2.64) 0.219 2.29 (1.29–4.06) < 0.01 1.84 (1.19–2.84) < 0.01
  Ptrend < 0.05   < 0.01   < 0.001
  1. aNumber of participants; b Crude odds ratio (cOR) calculated by a logistic regression model; c Adjusted odds ratio-1 (aOR1) calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, education, occupation, influenza or fever, folic acid supplement, and passive smoking in the periconceptional period; d aOR2 calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, occupation, influenza or fever, folic acid supplement, and passive smoking in the periconceptional period; e aOR3 calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, education, occupation, influenza or fever, and passive smoking in the periconceptional period