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Table 1 Overall and major malformations and heart diseases among newborns according to maternal and newborn characteristics

From: Evaluation of risk due to chronic low dose ionizing radiation exposure on the birth prevalence of congenital heart diseases (CHD) among the newborns from high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast, India

  N No. babies born dead No. of newborns with ORe CHD (95% CI)
CAa (‰) MCAb (‰) CHDc (‰d)
Maternal age at birth in years
 15-19 11,886 33 255 (21.45) 93 (7.82) 15 (1.27) 0.87 (0.49-1.54)
 20-21 29,068 74 693 (23.84) 246 (8.46) 25 (0.86) 0.59 (0.37-0.94)h
 22-23 41,424 95 957 (23.1) 374 (9.03) 61 (1.48) 1.00
 24-25 40,533 115 988 (24.38) 349 (8.61) 57 (1.41) 0.95 (0.66-1.37)
 26-27 29,905 84 714 (23.88) 279 (9.33) 54 (1.81) 1.22 (0.84-1.77)
 28-29 19,938 50 485 (24.33) 189 (9.48) 36 (1.81) 1.21 (0.79-1.85)
 ≥ 30 21,413 82 576 (26.9) 244 (11.39) 41 (1.92) 1.26 (0.83-1.91)
    Pf = 0.047 P = 0.008 P = 0.026  
Gravida Status
 1 89,787 234 2236 (24.9) 784 (8.73) 119 (1.33) 1.00
 2 88,482 205 2060 (23.28) 818 (9.24) 140 (1.59) 1.02 (0.78-1.33)
 3 13,826 71 313 (22.64) 139 (10.05) 23 (1.67) 1.02 (0.63-1.64)
 ≥ 4 2072 23 59 (28.47) 33 (15.93) 7 (3.42) 2.02 (0.92-4.44)
    P = 0.048 P = 0.004 P = 0.057  
Gender of the newborng
 Male 99,085 287 2882 (29.09) 1048 (10.58) 138 (1.40) 0.88 (0.70-1.10)
 Female 95,060 243 1764 (18.56) 704 (7.41) 151 (1.59) 1.00
    P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.291  
Consanguinity
 No 190,879 516 4579 (23.99) 1723 (9.03) 283 (1.49) 1.00
 Yes 3288 17 89 (27.07) 51 (15.51) 6 (1.83) 1.31 (0.58-2.96)
    P = 0.253 P < 0.001 P = 0.778  
Religion and Ethnicity
 Hindu 132,138 367 3190 (24.14) 1179 (8.92) 190 (1.44)
 Nair 26,791 66 588 (21.95) 229 (8.55) 41 (1.53) 1.00
 Ezhava 48,688 121 1251 (25.69) 442 (9.08) 70 (1.44) 0.93 (0.63-1.37)
 Viswakarma 13,656 27 348 (25.48) 118 (8.64) 21 (1.54) 0.96 (0.57-1.63)
 Others 43,003 153 1003 (23.32) 390 (9.07) 58 (1.35) 0.86 (0.58-1.29)
 Christian 21,724 61 532 (24.49) 201 (9.25) 39 (1.8) 1.14 (0.74-1.78)
 Muslim 40,305 105 946 (23.47) 394 (9.78) 60 (1.49) 1.01 (0.67-1.51)
    P = 0.670 P = 0.284 P = 0.449  
Radiation dose in mGy/year
 ≤ 1.50 79,403 203 2059 (25.93) 721 (9.08) 142 (1.79) 1.00
 1.51-3.00 96,393 290 2211 (22.94) 901 (9.35) 125 (1.3) 0.72 (0.57-0.92)h
 3.01-6.00 12,256 25 260 (21.21) 89 (7.26) 12 (0.98) 0.55 (0.31-1.0)
 ≥ 6.01 6115 15 138 (22.57) 63 (10.3) 10 (1.64) 0.96 (0.5-1.85)
    P < 0.001 P = 0.103 P = 0.024  
Total 194,167 533 4668 (24.04) 1774 (9.14) 289 (1.49)  
  1. N=No. of total births
  2. aCA – congenital anomaly
  3. bMCA – major congenital anomaly
  4. cCHD – congenital heart disease
  5. dCHD frequency calculated per 1000 Live births
  6. eOdds Ratio, with 95% Confidence Interval obtained by employing multiple logistic regression with all the characteristics in the model and category with OR as 1 as reference
  7. fP-values of chi-square test comparing the frequencies across different sub-groups after applying Yate’s correction, where necessary
  8. gThere were 22 cases with intersex, of which 3 were born dead
  9. hStatistically significant