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Table 3 Results of the in vitro chromosome aberration test with short-term treatment and with metabolic activation

From: Genotoxicity test of eight natural color additives in the Korean market

Test substance Conc. (μg/ml) Obs. Cell No. S9 mix Trt-Rec Time (hrs) Number of chromosomal aberrations
Numerical aberrations Structural aberrations
Pol Endo Total (%) ctb cte csb cse Total (%)
Negative Control 200 + 6–18 0 0 0 (0) 2 0 0 0 2 (1)
Gardenia Red 313 0 0 0 (0) 2 0 0 0 2 (1)
625 0 0 0 (0) 2 0 0 0 2 (1)
1250 0 0 0 (0) 3 0 0 0 3 (1.5)
2500 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
5000 0 0 0 (0) 4 0 0 0 4 (2)
Gardenia Yellow 313 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
625 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
1250 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
2500 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
5000 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
Gardenia Blue 313 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
625 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
1250 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
2500 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
Cochineal Extract 313 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
625 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
1250 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
2500 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
5000 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
Lac Color 313 0 0 0 (0) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
625 0 0 0 (0) 3 0 0 0 3 (1.5)
1250 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
2500 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
Beet Red 313 0 0 0 (0) 2 0 0 0 2 (1)
625 0 0 0 (0) 2 0 2 0 4 (2)
1250 0 0 0 (0) 2 0 0 0 2 (1)
2500 0 0 0 (0) 4 0 1 0 5 (2.5)
5000 0 0 0 (0) 2 1 0 0 3 (1.5)
Curcuma extract 78 0 0 0 (0) 1 0 0 0 1 (0.5)
156 0 0 0 (0) 4 0 0 0 4 (2)
313 1 1 2 (1) 8 1 0 0 9 (4.5)
Monascus Red 78 0 0 0 (0) 4 0 2 0 6 (3)
156 0 0 0 (0) 5 0 1 1 7 (3.5)
313 0 2 2 (1) 4 0 0 0 4 (2)
Positive control 0 0 0 (0) 45 16 24 1 86* (43)
  1. Negative control: sterile distilled water
  2. Positive control: cyclophosphamide monohydrate 5.0 μg/ml
  3. Trt-Rec Time treatment-recovery times
  4. Pol polyploids, Endo endoreduplication, ctb chromatid breakage, cte chromatid exchange, csb chromosome breakage, cse chromosome exchange
  5. *: Significantly different from the negative control by Fisher’s exact test at p < 0.05