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Table 2 Socio-demographic, Parasitological and clinical characteristics of the Plasmodium falciparum infected children

From: Toll-like receptor (TLR4) Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in relation to clinical falciparum malaria among Nigerian children: a multisite cross-sectional immunogenetic study in Lagos

Parameter Study participants P
Total Clinical malaria Asymptomatic malaria
(n = 279) (n = 182) (n = 97)  
Age, median (Range), months 52 (8 – 110) 52 (8 – 110) 51 (10–105) ND
Age, mean ± SEM, months 56.7 ± 1.4 57.3 ± 1.7 55.6 ± 2.5 0.59
Age group, n (%)     
6 – 24 14 (5) 8 (4.4) 6 (6.2) 0.54
25 – 59 152 (54.5) 101 (55.5) 51 (52.6) 0.69
60 and above 113 (40.5) 73 (40.1) 40 (41.2) 0.86
Gender     
Male, n (%) 167 (59.9) 113 (62.1) 54 (55.7) 0.29
Geometric mean parasite density (95 % CI), parasites/uL 5470 (2,170 – 7,770) 10,200 (5,300 – 15,100) 1,690 (1340 – 2040) <0.001
Hyperparasitaemia     
(parasitaemia > 250,000/uL), n (%) High parasite density 2 (0.7) 2 (1.1) 0 (0) ND
(parasitaemia >10,000/uL), n (%) 62 (22.2) 62 (33.2) 0 (0) ND
Axillary body temperature, mean ± SEM, °C 37.1 ± 0.04 37.2 ± 0.05 36.8 ± 0.03 <0.0001
Hyperpyrexia (> 40 °C), n (%) 5 (1.8) 5 (2.7) 0 (0) ND
Hb, mean ± SEM (range), g/dl 11.6 ± 0.1 (4.2 – 14.1) 11.3 ± 0.2 (4.2 – 13.4) 12.2 ± 0.1 (10.2 – 14.1) <0.001
Anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl), n (%) 49 (17.6) 37 (20.3) 12 (12.4) ND
Severe anaemia, (Hb < 6 g/dl), n (%) 15 (5.4) 15 (8.2) 0 (0)  
Indices of malnutrition, n (%)     
WAZ (n = 224)    14 (16.9)  
< −2 SD 50 (22.3) 36 (25.5) 68 (81.9)  
−2 – to 2 SD 171 (76.3) 103 (73.0) 1 (1.2) 0.14
>2 SD 3 (1.4) 2 (1.5)   
HAZ (n = 239)    11 (13.3)  
< −2 SD 57 (23.8) 46 (29.5) 70 (84.3) 0.006
−2 – to 2 SD 176 (73.6) 106 (67.9) 2 (2.4)  
>2 SD 6 (2.6) 4 (2.6) 1 (1.2)  
WHZ (n = 215)     
< −2 SD 8 (3.7) 7 (5.3) 79 (96.3) 0.001
−2 – to 2 SD 204 (94.9) 125 (94.0) 2 (2.5)  
>2 SD 3 (1.4) 1 (0.7)   
  1. ND = Not determined. Differences in malnutrition indices: weight for age WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and weight for height (WHZ) z scores between clinical and asymptomatic malarial children was evaluated with a 2 by 3 contingency table using chi-square (χ2) test. Disparity in mean values was evaluated using Student’s t-test. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant