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Table 3 Odds ratios of total neural tube defects (NTDs) and two of their subtypes (anencephaly and spina bifida) associated with hair thorium concentrations dichotomized by medians of controls

From: Thorium and fetal neural tube defects: an epidemiological evidence from large case-control study

OR Anencephaly (N = 123) a P Spina bifida (N = 115) P Total NTDs (N = 263) P
cOR b 2.19 (1.46–3.28) < 0.001 2.54 (1.67–3.87) < 0.001 2.48 (1.82–3.37) < 0.001
aOR1 c 1.40 (0.83–2.35) 0.209 1.96 (1.18–3.24) < 0.01 1.80 (1.23–2.63) < 0.01
aOR2 d 1.53 (0.93–2.52) 0.097 2.30 (1.41–3.75) < 0.001 2.08 (1.45–3.00) < 0.001
aOR3 e 1.53 (0.92–2.55) 0.103 1.95 (1.19–3.19) < 0.01 1.88 (1.30–2.73) < 0.001
aOR4 f 1.39 (0.79–2.45) 0.254 1.63 (0.94–2.80) 0.080 1.67 (1.11–2.51) < 0.05
  1. aNumber of participants; b Crude odds ratio (cOR) calculated by a logistic regression model; c Adjusted odds ratio-1 (aOR1) calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, education, occupation, influenza or fever, folic acid supplement, and passive smoking in the periconceptional period; d aOR2 calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, occupation, influenza or fever, folic acid supplement, and passive smoking in the periconceptional period; e aOR3 calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, education, occupation, influenza or fever, and passive smoking in the periconceptional period. f aOR4 calculated by a logistic regression model adjusted for maternal age, history of previous birth defects, education, occupation, influenza or fever, passive smoking, and exposure index in the periconceptional period