Skip to main content

Table 1 Bacterial reverse mutation assay results for natural color additives

From: Genotoxicity test of eight natural color additives in the Korean market

Test Substance Conc. (μg/plate) Absence of metabolic system Presence of metabolic system
Frameshift mutation Base-pair substitution Frameshift-sensitive Base-pair substitution
TA98 TA1537 TA100 TA1535 E.Coli TA98 TA1537 TA100 TA1535 E.Coli
Gardenia Red 0 24 ± 3 14 ± 2 125 ± 13 16 ± 5 51 ± 1 36 ± 1 31 ± 1 174 ± 2 13 ± 3 48 ± 4
50 20 ± 4 15 ± 6 127 ± 15 13 ± 2 41 ± 4 38 ± 2 28 ± 2 188 ± 9 18 ± 4 52 ± 4
150 23 ± 3 12 ± 2 132 ± 15 14 ± 3 48 ± 10 39 ± 1 23 ± 8 175 ± 5 15 ± 2 61 ± 5*
500 25 ± 9 12 ± 3 145 ± 8 16 ± 2 44 ± 6 35 ± 2 32 ± 2 167 ± 12 15 ± 4 48 ± 5
1500 25 ± 3 10 ± 4 143 ± 12 13 ± 2 44 ± 7 33 ± 7 28 ± 6 181 ± 12 16 ± 1 52 ± 3
5000 19 ± 4 12 ± 3 145 ± 1 15 ± 5 46 ± 6 35 ± 7 29 ± 2 162 ± 18 12 ± 5 48 ± 6
Gardenia Yellow 0 22 ± 1 12 ± 2 139 ± 22 13 ± 5 46 ± 8 36 ± 4 28 ± 1 134 ± 1 13 ± 6 50 ± 2
50 23 ± 5 11 ± 1 129 ± 33 17 ± 5 54 ± 4 37 ± 5 33 ± 9 149 ± 9 16 ± 3 49 ± 6
150 21 ± 2 12 ± 3 139 ± 5 12 ± 3 53 ± 1 33 ± 4 32 ± 5 150 ± 4 14 ± 1 54 ± 6
500 31 ± 2** 10 ± 3 130 ± 6 15 ± 4 50 ± 4 42 ± 5 33 ± 8 143 ± 9 14 ± 3 51 ± 6
1500 24 ± 2 12 ± 3 130 ± 4 12 ± 3 53 ± 5 43 ± 3 37 ± 9 152 ± 8 13 ± 3 57 ± 11
5000 37 ± 1*** 12 ± 1 136 ± 15 15 ± 6 46 ± 14 85 ± 4*** 50 ± 5* 163 ± 9** 12 ± 3 50 ± 4
Gardenia Blue 0 20 ± 3 13 ± 1 149 ± 11 16 ± 4 50 ± 9 35 ± 10 28 ± 4 167 ± 25 23 ± 1 42 ± 5
50 20 ± 5 13 ± 2 167 ± 9 26 ± 3** 52 ± 5 33 ± 12 22 ± 5 169 ± 19 22 ± 4 44 ± 5
150 22 ± 2 9 ± 2 164 ± 13 24 ± 3 45 ± 5 28 ± 10 25 ± 4 155 ± 14 22 ± 6 46 ± 10
500 24 ± 7 10 ± 4 160 ± 13 23 ± 3 54 ± 5 30 ± 8 21 ± 2 165 ± 4 17 ± 2 45 ± 8
1500 21 ± 5 12 ± 3 154 ± 7 28 ± 1** 51 ± 7 32 ± 3 20 ± 2 145 ± 11 23 ± 2 48 ± 11
5000 34 ± 8 12 ± 3 143 ± 11 27 ± 3** 45 ± 3 33 ± 6 23 ± 4 114 ± 5* 24 ± 5 45 ± 6
Cochineal Extract 0 20 ± 3 15 ± 2 119 ± 4 10 ± 1 53 ± 8 33 ± 11 39 ± 22 235 ± 41 13 ± 1 46 ± 5
50 24 ± 2 15 ± 2 123 ± 5 13 ± 2 55 ± 6 28 ± 8 43 ± 7 224 ± 27 12 ± 4 55 ± 2
150 19 ± 4 21 ± 3 118 ± 1 14 ± 3 43 ± 9 32 ± 2 39 ± 7 216 ± 14 15 ± 1 57 ± 5
500 20 ± 1 18 ± 6 122 ± 10 16 ± 5 51 ± 2 30 ± 9 43 ± 11 219 ± 26 12 ± 4 49 ± 3
1500 23 ± 6 19 ± 8 141 ± 1** 13 ± 1 45 ± 13 33 ± 6 46 ± 3 217 ± 25 17 ± 5 55 ± 5
5000 18 ± 5 19 ± 7 151 ± 8*** 10 ± 4 52 ± 4 32 ± 1 40 ± 4 230 ± 8 10 ± 2 54 ± 7
Lac Color 0 26 ± 5 22 ± 6 123 ± 12 12 ± 4 44 ± 3 33 ± 2 29 ± 4 190 ± 16 14 ± 4 52 ± 4
50 22 ± 2 27 ± 3 135 ± 4 15 ± 2 55 ± 2 46 ± 5 30 ± 2 177 ± 19 17 ± 8 53 ± 4
150 23 ± 4 27 ± 2 125 ± 6 13 ± 4 54 ± 9 31 ± 4 37 ± 9 181 ± 9 16 ± 7 52 ± 9
500 26 ± 8 26 ± 6 127 ± 9 13 ± 2 54 ± 7 35 ± 3 28 ± 1 173 ± 7 16 ± 4 54 ± 2
1500 20 ± 3 26 ± 3 143 ± 6 13 ± 5 58 ± 4 33 ± 9 27 ± 4 184 ± 10 15 ± 4 50 ± 6
5000 23 ± 5 23 ± 3 132 ± 9 14 ± 2 49 ± 6 34 ± 6 34 ± 5 165 ± 20 16 ± 7 52 ± 10
Beet Red 0 21 ± 4 16 ± 3 142 ± 23 11 ± 2 59 ± 8 35 ± 3 45 ± 11 173 ± 1 13 ± 3 47 ± 2
50 19 ± 1 16 ± 1 148 ± 11 14 ± 4 50 ± 5 40 ± 10 34 ± 3 170 ± 10 14 ± 2 50 ± 5
150 20 ± 2 16 ± 5 161 ± 15 14 ± 3 53 ± 6 37 ± 10 38 ± 2 174 ± 14 11 ± 6 52 ± 10
500 27 ± 2 19 ± 7 148 ± 12 16 ± 3 53 ± 5 38 ± 6 38 ± 6 169 ± 12 10 ± 4 50 ± 5
1500 19 ± 7 20 ± 2 153 ± 21 14 ± 7 56 ± 4 31 ± 7 39 ± 6 179 ± 4 15 ± 3 52 ± 4
5000 20 ± 4 17 ± 3 171 ± 7 14 ± 5 56 ± 7 35 ± 4 38 ± 2 183 ± 18 15 ± 4 50 ± 6
Curcuma extract 0 22 ± 5 15 ± 2 121 ± 8 15 ± 6 57 ± 5 26 ± 1 48 ± 12 140 ± 7 20 ± 3 55 ± 4
50 24 ± 7 15 ± 1 132 ± 8 17 ± 5 57 ± 6 28 ± 3 44 ± 12 156 ± 13 14 ± 2 52 ± 2
150 29 ± 1 13 ± 6 116 ± 6 15 ± 6 60 ± 2 31 ± 4 61 ± 38 165 ± 9 14 ± 4 49 ± 5
500 26 ± 4 14 ± 3 microcoloniesa 16 ± 4 53 ± 7 32 ± 8 36 ± 7 147 ± 13 15 ± 4 54 ± 6
1500 23 ± 10 microcoloniesa 869 ± 68*** 8 ± 4 44 ± 4 37 ± 6 32 ± 10 133 ± 7 14 ± 3 50 ± 10
5000 24 ± 6 microcoloniesa 142 ± 27 10 ± 3 54 ± 7 29 ± 1 28 ± 9 microcoloniesa 8 ± 3** 46 ± 3
Monascus Red 0 21 ± 6 14 ± 3 148 ± 11 14 ± 1 51 ± 13 29 ± 5 39 ± 1 199 ± 13 15 ± 1 45 ± 1
50 22 ± 2 16 ± 4 166 ± 12 13 ± 2 51 ± 7 33 ± 3 31 ± 4 203 ± 16 19 ± 6 47 ± 6
150 23 ± 4 14 ± 4 172 ± 3 16 ± 2 60 ± 8 35 ± 10 38 ± 6 191 ± 28 24 ± 3 50 ± 9
500 16 ± 3 16 ± 2 137 ± 20 14 ± 3 50 ± 7 34 ± 3 34 ± 2 167 ± 16 14 ± 2 49 ± 14
1500 19 ± 1 8 ± 4 144 ± 15 14 ± 2 50 ± 8 33 ± 7 3 ± 9 157 ± 7 16 ± 6 49 ± 3
5000 23 ± 5 microcoloniesa microcoloniesa 15 ± 2 55 ± 10 38 ± 2 28 ± 6 159 ± 14 18 ± 2 54 ± 6
Positive control 156 ± 68b 119 ± 29c 456 ± 86b 358 ± 29d 151 ± 16e 790 ± 395f 205 ± 106g 1277 ± 370h 218 ± 75g 290 ± 121i
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of three replicates
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 or ***p < 0.001 compared to the negative control (0 μg/plate)
  3. aEach plate was divided into 16 sections, and each section contained 300 or more microcolonies
  4. b2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acylamide (AF-2) 0.1 μg/plate, c9-Aminoacridine (9-AA) 40 μg/plate, dSodium azide (NaN3) 0.5 μg/plate,
  5. eAF-2 0.01 μg/plate, f2-Aminoanthracene (2-AA) 0.5 μg/plate, g2-AA 2 μg/plate, h: 2-AA 1 μg/plate, i2-AA 10 μg/plate